Introduction to Sherlock Holmes

Sherlock Holmes in "The Adventure of the ...

Sherlock Holmes in “The Adventure of the Abbey Grange.” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Sherlock Holmes books, created by Arthur Conan Doyle, are some of the greatest mystery novels ever written.  Edgar Allen Poe may have invented the detective story, but it was Arthur Conan Doyle who perfected it when he created the character of Sherlock Holmes.  The typical detective story begins with a protagonist who is faced with a mostly mundane incident or the report of an incident that he begins to investigate.  If we were not so accustomed to mystery novels and what makes them tick this might seem like an unimaginative way to begin a story.

What makes a good detective story work is the technique of the story within a story.  As the protagonist begins to investigate the original mystery of a book he comes to reveal a second story contained inside the first one that expands the book and causes it to be transformed.

Detective stories usually begin with a standard set of characters who fall into familiar categories, such as the hard-boiled private eye or the detached scientific investigator.  As these characters that the reader is already accustomed to begin to encounter the original mystery of a book, however, they circle around something very different than themselves.  Like characters traveling down a maze they reveal new patterns that allow the book to be transformed as they go deeper and deeper.

Arthur Conan Doyle was a master at creating plots that fit inside one another in a logical way.  What makes a Sherlock Holmes book so compelling is the way that Doyle masterfully puts one story neatly on top of another like the gears of a clock.  The machinery of a Sherlock Holmes book moves slowly as a wider world is uncovered.  The more of a Sherlock Holmes book that you read the more that it changes its shape.  Arthur Conan Doyle created this way of telling a detective story and then showed how it could be mastered.

Sherlock Holmes is a cipher himself.  The reader knows from hints here and there that Holmes has much about him that must be complex and unusual underneath.  Exactly what this is, however, is left up to the reader to guess.  Is Holmes really as detached as he sometimes seems?  What motivates him?  What does he care about?  Why does he do what he does?

The narrator of a Sherlock Holmes story is always his good friend John Watson.  Watson clearly worships Holmes and sees him as a genius.  The reader is left to guess how reliable Watson is as a narrator, however, and how much they can always trust what he says.  The relationship between Holmes and Watson is a question mark.  Holmes often criticizes Watson and acts coldly towards him but then at other moments seems to betray his affection.

The questions that the reader has about both Holmes and Watson are a good place to start a book but they are also questions that a reader can easily entertain without being distracted from the plots that follow.  The stories and mysteries in a Sherlock Holmes book almost always end up being portraits of a larger Victorian society.  The story may begin at 221 Baker Street, but in the course of unraveling a case Holmes and Watson are liable to take the reader to the farthest corners of the British empire.

London at the time of the Sherlock Holmes books was still the center of the largest empire that the world had ever seen.  The plots reflect this, with characters haunted by their pasts coming to see Holmes and Watson to tell them about what they saw and did in India and Africa and other far off places of the globe.

The motivation for most of the crime committed in a Sherlock Holmes story is revealed to be the result of a conflict between the desire to maintain Victorian social respectability and attain worldly success.  The new opportunities offered by industrialization and capitalism often clashed with the more conservative morality that Victorians clung to as a defense against social turmoil.  Sherlock Holmes books usually stood somewhere near the center of this conflict, as Doyle attempted to explore the different social crosscurrents of the time with his stories within his stories.

Sherlock Holmes himself brings together many different contradictory threads of Victorian life.  His cold demeanor and use of logic represented for many people at the time both what disturbed them about science and also what fascinated them.  Sherlock Holmes is an upholder of Victorian morality, as he seeks to put right what has been done wrong and prevent the guilty from disturbing the social order.  Sherlock Holmes also stands outside of the social order by keeping many bohemian habits and having many eccentric ways of living his life.

Arthur Conan Doyle began to write about Sherlock Holmes as a way to supplement his income when he was a young doctor struggling to make ends meet.  The first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet, was written for Beeton’s Christmas Annual in 1887.  This story was also the first use by Doyle of a story within a story, which helps to explain its immediate popularity.

The story starts with John Watson as a recent veteran of the British war in Afghanistan.  Watson moves in with Sherlock Holmes as a way of saving money on rent.  It is only after he moves in with Holmes that Watson discovers he is also a detective.  In the course of following him as he attempts to discover the perpetrator of a series of strange murders Watson reveals to the reader for the first time the strangeness of the character of Sherlock Holmes.

The story starts in London as Watson follows Holmes as he investigates his leads but by the end of the first part the story has been suddenly transformed.  After Holmes and Watson apprehend who they think is the murderer he begins to make a long account of who he is and why he has done what he’s done.  Very suddenly the action of the story shifts to America and the frontier of Utah as the rest of the book is taken up with his account.

This sudden change of scene is what makes the rest of the story work.  Conan Doyle had discovered a new way of telling a story that he would use many times again.  The popularity of the Sherlock Holmes stories made Arthur Conan Doyle a very wealthy man and gave him the time to pursue his many other interests and become a notable figure of his time.  Despite this, Doyle often became tired of writing about Sherlock Holmes.

The fact that he had originally created him as a way of making money perhaps made Doyle think less of Sherlock Holmes than he should have.  Whenever Doyle found that he was running low on funds he would write another series of Sherlock Holmes stories that were immediately gobbled up by a hungry public.  Arthur Conan Doyle famously tried to kill Sherlock Holmes by having him die together with his nemesis professor Moriarty in the story the Final Problem.  Fortunately, he found that he was unable to make this stick, as the public demand for more stories was just too high for him to turn it away for long.

In addition to his Sherlock Holmes stories Arthur Conan Doyle wrote many works of fiction and non-fiction and several theatrical works.  All of these were well received and he was considered an important social critic and campaigner for various political causes.  Nothing, however, could overshadow the work that he did writing his Sherlock Holmes stories.  In the end, it is also through these stories that he has been best remembered.

By creating Sherlock Holmes Arthur Conan Doyle created a permanent place for himself in the world’s literature.  He also created a new way of telling a story that has been the basis of countless works by other authors since.  Its rare that any author has made a similar impact in any form of literature.  By reading any of the Sherlock Holmes stories you will not only be enjoying a series of tales told well but also exploring a part of the foundation of modern literature.

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6 thoughts on “Introduction to Sherlock Holmes

  1. Good morning. I have been put on a mission from my father to find ANY printed Sherlock Holmes in Irish (Gaelic). We just returned from Ireland and I searched several book shops in the larger cities to no avail. If you have any insight to where I might look/find such an animal, I would greatly appreciate this. Thanks in advance for any help.

    • I’m sorry I can’t help with that.

    • Christine

      I found at least two translations of Conan Doyle’s work into Gaelic, using the Worldcat database. At least I think that’s what they are, since I don’t read Gaelic–I just searched the author’s name and “Sherlock Holmes” and “other” for the language. There were over 1000 results so I stopped after about 80 items. I would suggest you ask your local library to search Worldcat to find books translated into Gaelic. You could then search online bookshops or local bookshops to see if they have those books for sale.

  2. Shira Kamil

    Thank you so much for your search. Unfortunately, my father passed in April and I no longer need the book.
    Have a very Merry Christmas, Happy New Year and prosperous 2014.

  3. May I mention for general interest that my Sherlock Holmes novels are written in the ‘classic’ Doyle style by contrast with the Action Man Holmes created by movie directors like Guy Ritchie –

    Sherlock Holmes And The Mystery of Einstein’s Daughter by Tim Symonds

    Based on a true event in Albert Einstein’s life. In late 1903 Einstein’s daughter ‘Lieserl’ disappears without trace in Serbia aged around 21 months. As Holmes exclaims in the Mystery of Einstein’s Daughter, “the most ruthless effort has been made by public officials, priests, monks, Einstein’s friends, followers, relatives and relatives-by-marriage to seek out and destroy every document with Lieserl’s name on it. The question is – why?”

    ‘Lieserl’s fate shadows the Einstein legend like some unsolved equation’ Scientist Frederic Golden Time Magazine
    First review, (from Serbia):

    Sherlock Holmes And The Mystery of Einstein’s Daughter is available at or Review copies contact Steve Emecz at

    Tim Symonds was born in London. He grew up in Somerset, Dorset and Guernsey. After several years working in the Kenya Highlands and along the Zambezi River he emigrated to the United States. He studied in Germany at Göttingen and at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa in Political Science. Sherlock Holmes And The Mystery Of Einstein’s Daughter was written in a converted oast house in ‘Conan Doyle country’, near Rudyard Kipling’s old home Bateman’s in East Sussex and in the forests and hidden valleys of the Sussex High Weald.
    The author’s other detective novels include Sherlock Holmes and The Dead Boer at Scotney Castle and Sherlock Holmes and The Case of the Bulgarian Codex.
    He is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

    Lieserl may never have come to the eyes of the outside world but for an unexpected find eighty three years after her disappearance. In California, Einstein’s first son, Hans Albert Einstein, investigated an old shoebox tucked away on the top shelf of a wardrobe. It contained several dozen yellowed letters in German type, exchanges between his parents Albert and Mileva.

    Holmes on justice (The Resident Patient): “Wretch as he was, he was still living under the shield of British law, and I have no doubt, Inspector, that you will see that, though that shield may fail to guard, the sword of justice is still there to avenge.”

  4. Megan

    I am looking to introduce Sherlock Holmes to my 7th grade students, but I have limited time. We will be reading the short stories in The Adventures. Can you recommend several that do a good job of getting one used to his world and personality?

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